On August 22, 1921, Chief Monfwi, representing all Tlicho, signed Treaty 11 with Canada. The Treaty promised to give the Tlicho annual payments and services, like medical care, education and old age care. In exchange, Canada would get title to the land, and would be free to allow gas and mineral exploration throughout the Mackenzie Valley.
Download: Treaty 11
Treaty 11 was negotiated during the summer of 1921. During the negotiations, many concerns were raised, but Canada assured the people that they would not lose their right to hunt, fish and trap. By the end of the summer, Chief Monfwi signed the Treaty at a ceremony in Behchoko.
At the time of signing, Chief Monfwi pronounced the words that guide us to this day:
“as long as the sun rises, the river flows, and the land does not move, we will not be restricted from our way of life”.