On August 22, 1921, Chief Monfwi, representing all Tlicho, signed Treaty 11 with Canada. The Treaty promised to give the Tlicho annual payments and services, like medical care, education and old age care. In exchange, Canada would get title to the land, and would be free to allow gas and mineral exploration throughout the Mackenzie Valley.
It was becoming clear that the old treaties with Canada, including Treaty 11, were no longer working for Aboriginal people. Promises of care and services were not being kept, and Aboriginal rights were being interfered with.
In 1968, Tlicho assembled in Behchoko, and together refused to accept Treaty payments. The boycott signaled a growing movement. The Aboriginal people of the North were beginning to question the fairness of their Treaties, and assert their Aboriginal Rights and Title.